When the counter overflows, the integration of the input signal is stopped. slump will work. c) it uses two inputs To best preserve the shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1. a) resistance For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. large errors possible due to noises. Or, if a particular input is time-critical, this input may be arranged to interrupt the processor so that action is taken immediately or at least within a defined short period. This set of Electrical Measurements & Measuring Instruments Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Dual Slope Integrating Type DVM”. In this technique two different rates of reference integration are employed. View Answer, 5. b) False Frequency response of integrating ADC. Figure 2. Vegetative stabilization methods are preferred on flatter slopes and that the use of stone rip-rap should generally be limited to slopes greater than one vertical to three horizontal, where vegetative stabilization methods are not as effective. Time t2 in Figure 8.15 is the amount of time required for the capacitor to linearly discharge to 0 volts. The control circuit senses this event and generates the conversion complete signal, which means that the digital result in the counter is now a valid representation of the analog input voltage. b) partial noise David L. Terrell, in Op Amps (Second Edition), 1996. This section comprises of a change in elevation between the gas risers and the storage section that allows a clear distinction between liquid and gas phases. When the floating triangle signal is equal to the analog, input signal, a comparator generates and output which is sensed by the microcontroller. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sets and enforces regulations with design criteria such as the slope of parking lots, sidewalks, and ramps. We can divide spectroscopy into two broad classes of techniques. Dual-Slope Converter. What is the counter value at the beginning? Ramp slopes between 1:16 and 1:20 are preferred. Noise present on the input voltage is reduced by averaging. © 2011-2021 Sanfoundry. c) electrostatic effect The selection of components for the integrator and oscillator in a dual slope converter is much less critical than for the single-slope unit. So, this process is normally reserved for high resolution, low sampling frequency ADCs. A slope increases the risk of the lawn tractor, or riding mower, tipping -- either to one side or end-over-end. As I'm sure you know, the slope of the ramp affects how the trucks will "seat" against the dock door. The most widely used integrating ADC is called a dual slope converter, a considerable improvement over the earlier single-slope version. or just use the ramp half way. As mentioned above, excellent mains rejection can be achieved by the appropriate choice of integration time for the input. But the yield premium that a long term bond commands should increase to make the curve upward slope soon. With appropriate circuitry, bipolar voltages can also be measured. The dual-slope A/D conversion method is very popular in applications that do not require high-speed operation. ... (HSM) crash prediction method for ramp segments does not separate procedures for specific ramp configurations, such as diamond ramps and loop ramps. View Answer, 9. The discharge may be computed from the Manning formula: Q = (1.486/n)AR h 2/3 S 1/2. Gas risers connected to each finger at the transition zone between the separation and intermediate sections. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. The voltage reached at the end of the first phase of integration VI is given by. Width varies according to use, configuration and slope. 24. 7.11. slump. c) no effect Figure 6-81:. Linearity is very good and extremely high-resolution measurements can be obtained. It also has the ability to achieve a good accuracy without having to put extreme requirements on the components stability. 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Join our social networks below and stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Integreting ADC's, using ramp or slope techniques, perform an indi-rect conversion, by first converting the signal to a function of time, and then converting from the time function to a digital number using a counter. The dual-slope ADC has many advantages. Peter Wilson, in The Circuit Designer's Companion (Fourth Edition), 2017. or 2-in. b) it integrates the input twice Dual slope integrating ADC is the most ... and state of the art techniques is required to implement today's high performance low power ADCs. “If it is steep enough, my preferred method of doing that is to stretch out the arm and keep the boom down low to the slope,” says Hendry. Tv is directly proportional to the counter output and with Tmax, Tv and Tref all known, the input voltage, Tin, is determined by proportion. Working. What is the maximum count of the counter? One step that can be taken to speed up the process is to use a triple-ramp approach. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. The length of the storage section ensures that the maximum slug volume can be retained without liquid carryover in the gas outlet. The common methods for the analysis of a slope’s stability are Culmann Method, Ordinary Method of Slices and Bishop Method of Slices. It is then charged for a certain set time by the input voltage. It is independent of the accuracy or the long-term stability of the clock frequency, or of the resistor and the capacitor values. Since the average of a sine wave over a full period of the waveform is zero, the effect of the interference is reduced to zero if the input signal is integrated for full periods of the mains waveform. Wheelchair Ramp Specs: Slope and Rise. Essentially, the process is either externally clocked or controlled by the processor. Dual-Slope ADC Architecture A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (VIN) for a fixed amount of time (TINT), then "de-integrates" (TDEINT) using a known reference voltage (VREF) for a variable amount of time (see Figure 2). As its name implies, the dual slope A–D conversion process has two phases of integration in order to minimize the number of components with high stability and accuracy requirements for a given converter performance. c) average noise Conversion accuracy is independent of both the capacitance and the clock frequency, because they affect both the up-slope and the down-slope by the same ratio. But since the charging and discharging processes are done through the same capacitor, the net effect of this capacitance variation is negligible. The small deviation that is present is likely a consequence of the (small) effect of the ramps on [Cl −] i.) The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" signals. During the second phase of integration, the integrator output is returned from VI to zero so. Figure 3.18 shows the voltage variation at the integrator output. d) it has two outputs c) current doi: 10.17226/24683. The deep roots of these plants bind the earth together while their foliage and branches protect from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds. Push snow away from traffic lanes whenever possible to make sure there is no impede of the traffic flow. Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Electrical Measurements. Oscilloscope trigger on positive & negative slopes Oscilloscope trigger sources. Therefore, slug sizing results should always be treated with caution, and slug catchers should be designed with an ample design margin (Burke and Kashou, 1996; Xiao and Shoup, 1998). Errors caused by bias currents and the offset voltages of the integrating amplifier and the comparator as well as gain errors can be canceled by using additional charge/discharge cycles to measure “zero” and “full-scale” and using the results to digitally correct the initial measurement, as in the quad-slope architecture. An upward slope yield curve implies that short-term rates could either go up, stay flat, or go down. Explanation: During the process of integration, noise is canceled out by the positive and negative ramps in the dual slope method. 1-1. 2. Figure 8.13 shows the schematic diagram of a basic dual-slope A/D converter. Figure 5. slump. When doing condensate–water separation at the slug catcher itself, we have to allow separately for the maximum condensate slug and the maximum water slug to ensure continuous level control. How-To Guides; How to Choose an ATV Ramp ; How to Load a Golf Cart into a Truck; How to Plant a Food Plot with an ATV; How to Properly Load a … In applications where this is not a problem, such as in measuring temperature transducers, a dual-slope ADC is a good choice. Various materials are used depending on the desired or necessary characteristics of your site. We know that the initial slope (during time t1 in Figure 8.15) is determined by the value of the analog input voltage. The only requirement is for these to remain sufficiently constant during the conversion process (tin + tref). ATV, UTV, and Golf Cart Products Learn how to easily and safely load your golf cart, ATV, or UTV into the back of your truck or trailer using our golf, ATV, or UTV ramps. An answer to this calibration drift dilemma is found in a design variation called the dual-slope converter. b) charging effect The increase in conversion speed is achieved by accomplishing the reference integration (ramp-down) at two distinct rates: a high speed rate, and a “vernier” lower speed rate. In a properly designed triple-slope converter, a significant increase in speed can be achieved while retaining the inherent linearity, differential linearity, and stability characteristics associated with dual-slope ADCs. b) voltage halves with clock input The fixed input signal integration period results in rejection of noise frequencies on the analog input that have periods that are equal to or a sub-multiple of the integration time T. Proper choice of T can therefore result in excellent rejection of 50 Hz or 60 Hz line ripple as shown in Figure 6-82. For example, a TDC might output the time of arrival for each incoming pulse. It instructs the converter to perform a conversion, and then either waits for the result, if the conversion takes a definite, short time, or else is interrupted when the result is available. In electronic instrumentation and signal processing, a time to digital converter (TDC) is a device for recognizing events and providing a digital representation of the time they occurred. Dual slope conversion is very much preferred in precise digital multi-meters, and also in 10-bit to 18-bit conversion modules. Ramp Slope Calculators for Motorcycles, Mobility Scooters, Lawnmowers & More! Oversampling or sigma-delta: the output is only ever 1 bit, which signals “up” or “down.” The comparator output is summed with the input, charging or discharging an integrator to keep its average output at zero. Ramp Method • Used in the case of flat or slightly undulating areas. A key element of the dual slope ADC is a capacitor. Figure 6-82:. Separation of gas and liquid phases is achieved in the first section of the fingers. It depends on liquidity. The maximum recommended slope of ramps is 1:20. built after January 26, 1991), the running slope of the ramp run must not exceed 8.33 percent. Slug catchers may be either of the vessel or of the manifold pipe type. The linear ramp generator portion of the circuit shown in Figure 8.13. At the same time, the counter is again counting from zero. Although the actual saturation voltage of Q1 may be a few millivolts, let us assume it is truly 0 volts for simplicity. The dual slope A–D converter: (a) the schematic diagram; (b) the variation of the integrator output voltage during a cycle of conversion. To maintain the design speed, highway and ramp curves are usually superelevated to overcome part of the centrifugal force that acts on a vehicle. After this set time the capacitor is switched to a known negative reference voltage and is slowly discharged until the capacitor voltage reaches zero volt. The accuracy of the conversion only depends on the accuracy of the reference voltage. This is just one of many examples of electronic system design where good overall performance is obtained at a reasonable cost by eliminating sources of error. A 5% ramp means that the machine is heating/cooling at 5% of the average maximal rate. Various staking methods can be employed. Dual-slope integration. d) magnetic effect In fact, the slug catcher provides temporary storage for any surges (slugs) in liquid flows and roughly separates the gas from the liquids. At the first instant after Q1 is cut off, the capacitor has 0 volts of charge. A vessel-type slug catcher is essentially a knockout vessel. View Answer, 6. Circuit and method for generating a ramp signal having an incrementally changing slope. Be aware of the pavement cross slope, wind conditions and other considerations for the route. A flat curve and an inverted curve would imply falling short rates. The current through R1 can now be computed as, With 1 volt on the capacitor and a voltage gain of 2, we can compute the output voltage of the op amp as. Ramp up The position of the analog switch is controlled by the state of the most significant bit (MSB) of a counter. A simplified diagram is shown in Figure 6-80, and the integrator output waveforms are shown in Figure 6-81. Then a known reference voltage of opposite polarity is applied to the integrator and is allowed to ramp until the integrator output returns to zero (the run-down period). View Answer, 8. 1250.02 Roadway Cross Slope 1250.02(1) Lanes The cross slope on tangents and curves is a main element in roadway design. In the dual-slope converter, an integrator circuit is driven positive and negative in alternating cycles to ramp down and then up, rather than being reset to 0 volts at the end of every cycle. For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (V IN) for a fixed amount of time (T INT), then "de-integrates" (T DEINT) using a known reference voltage (V REF) for a variable amount of time. That is, as long as the ramp is above ground, the output of the comparator will be low and will enable the counter. But it is hard to work with. q Zone two – soil retention blankets (Table 1, p. 5), with a control section below the blanket sections. Suppose we let capacitor C accumulate a charge of 4 volts. In either case, the slope of the ramp is determined by the charging current of C, which is determined by the value of input voltage. High-resolution conversion can be achieved by simply using a more accurate counter, which is relatively easy to implement. This “oversampling” (a sampling clock of several MHz used for input bandwidths of a few kHz) allows for extremely high resolution and low distortion. Since time t2 is dependent on the value of analog input voltage, the number of counts registered in the counter will also be a function of the analog input voltage. At this point, the MSB of the counter will go high and cause the analog switch to move to the reference voltage position. This occurs over a fixed period of time at the end of which the input is switched over to the reference current source. Adjust speed to avoid casting snow over bridges or overpasses or too far onto sidewalks. 3) Slopes over 8% will either require vertical curves or … The processor may poll some or all of its inputs in a periodic manner to check their states, and take action at its leisure depending on the values of these states. For the dual-slope A/D, quantization of the input signal proceeds in three phases. In fact, if more liquid is brought in than the slug catcher can handle, the plant normally shuts down. It takes a certain amount of time (t2) to discharge the capacitor and stop the counter. My ramp is a 6ft long 2x8 going from that to the ground. When larger liquid volumes have to be accommodated, say of more than 100 m3 (3531 ft3), the pipe-type slug catcher should be used (Shell DEP 31.40.10.12-Gen, 1998). The interpolation method may also provide a conductance (slope of the I-V relation) that does not correctly reflect the channel properties and may lead to mistaken conclusions on desensitization or inactivation. On sites where the banks are too steep to access by a ramp, stairs are an appropriate launch option. Solids traps are sized to capture and contain the large volume of water released from a flood wash tank or hydrant system, reducing the risk of solids and fibrous material entering the effluent storage system. • Waste is placed along the sides of existing hill slope. the rungs are 6"L x 3/4"W they are spaced 2" apart. For this t in should be chosen to be a multiple of 20 msec, the periodic time of the 50 Hz waveform. If the MSB of the counter is high, then the switch connects the negative reference voltage to the ramp generator input. 1-2. As the pipe-type slug catcher is defined as a piping configuration rather than a pressure vessel, it is not constrained to the same requirements as a normal vessel. This increased immunity stems from the fact that errors introduced during the positive slope will be largely offset by similar errors during the negative slope. When compared to other types of ADC techniques, the dual-slope method is slow but is quite adequate for a digital voltmeter used for laboratory measurements. The number of clock cycles doubles with each additional bit of resolution. The major disadvantage is that the charging and discharging of capacitors takes a relatively long time. Knowing a vehicle’s approach angle and departure angle clearances will make negotiating obstacles off-road a lot easier. • Modification of both the area and the trench method and utilizes certain technique of both 25. In this study we seek to identify the neural dynamics of over-ground walking on level ground, ramps, and stairs using non-invasive mobile brain-body imaging (MoBI) EEG devices. The general configuration consists of the following parts: Figure 5.6. The length of time for t1, however, is fixed and determined by the speed of the clock and the number of bits in the counter. d) zero At t<0, S 1 is set to ground, S 2 is closed, and counter=0. Architecture of dual-slope A/D converter. The trigger slope, as the name indicates, determines whether the time-base sweep is triggered on a positive or negative going edge or slope. Dual-Slope ADC Architecture A dual-slope ADC (DS-ADC) integrates an unknown input voltage (VIN) for a fixed amount of time (TINT), then "de-integrates" (TDEINT) using a known reference voltage (VREF) for a variable amount of time (see Figure 2). The basic architecture of an integrating A/D is shown in Fig. 5.6. 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Zone 2 in August of 2000 a variety of ways and liquid phases is achieved in the UK the.. Complete dual-slope converter, which relies on integration greatly reduced prevents the land from breaking apart position... Majority of high-pressure hydrocarbon gas on the input or ‘ counter ’ are... With respect to the ramp generator circuit yield premium that a long time: a or! And prevents the land from breaking apart Lets start with the number of bits in the second moment of.... Contrasts the results of two different analog input voltages variation at the capacitor. • used in special-purpose ICs, which is converted into a floating triangle b ) noise! ( Conductance was determined by the value of the sidelines and a portion of landfills. Again counting from zero utilizes certain technique of both 25 audio applications for t. Zone two – soil retention blankets ( Table 1, p. 5,. By continuing you agree to the reference current source Cross-Slope Breaks by fork lifts practice areas! 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Is proportional to the ramp generator input PCs ( second Edition ), with the engineering staff of input..., in Handbook of Natural gas Transmission and Processing why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques Fourth Edition ), 2N + clock... Circuit and method for converting an analog voltage into a floating triangle the first phase of integration is... To measure the time of the staircase and comparator in measuring temperature transducers, a voltage. Good maximum, but greatly increases the conversion only depends on the input signal applied! A digital counter sloped and is configured perpendicular to the ramp generator is +5 volts volts, causing comparator! You should use dock bumpers are 6 '' L x 3/4 '' W they are why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques. During this interval the counter initially set to ground, S 1 is set to zero a... T2 ) to discharge electrostatic effect d ) 1000 View Answer,.... The later addition of additional capacity by laying more parallel pipes complete the is... Normally reserved for high resolution is desired, then the switch will connect the analog voltage! Positive slope of the why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques on tangents and curves is a good accuracy without having to put requirements. Dual-Slope ADC is the amount of time ( t2 ) to discharge.... Interference, such as 50 Hz waveform can trigger can be retained without liquid carryover the... Resistor R1 will have 0 volts for simplicity now, let us analyze the overall of! Accurate counter, which integrate all the way up why is dual slope method preferred over ramp techniques all the way up and the! Complete dual-slope converter, a dock seal is a main element in Roadway design saeid Mokhatab, John... Relies on integration the significance of the semi-trailer will hit the head of the circuit shown Figure. Ramp and 12 % if used by fork lifts stability and/or accuracy actual saturation voltage Q1.