Increasingly, however, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. Over the next four decades, the emperor and his oligarchs made education compulsory and invested in everything from banks to railroads to modern printing presses that increased newspaper circulation. A few weeks later the national army engaged Saigō's rebels in a frontal assault at what now is called the Battle of Tabaruzuka.  Japanese exports led to kimono becoming an object of fascination in the West.. Japan's production capacity gradually expanded. After a short battle, both sides withdrew to reconstitute their forces. Following Japan's victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Japan broke through as an international power with a victory against Russia in Manchuria (north-eastern China) in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Stimulated by wars and through cautious economic planning, Japan emerged from World War I as a major industrial nation. What differences seem important? , The production of kimono started to use Western technologies such as synthetic dye, and decoration was sometimes influenced by Western motifs.  The Tokugawa shogunate did not officially share this point of view, however, as evidenced by the imprisonment of the Governor of Nagasaki, Shanan Takushima for voicing his views of military reform and weapons modernization.  The Meiji era saw a renewed interest in lacquer as artists developed new designs and experimented with new textures and finishes. The Gakusei called for strong control of education by the central government and integrated … Three years later, the Conference of Prefectural Governors established elected prefectural assemblies. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan was enacted on November 29, 1890. That included public concerts of Western music, which were held in a famous Rokumeikan Hall and Hibiya Open-Air stage in Tokyo, performing marches, patriotic music and European composers’ works (Richard Wagner, Charles Gounod, Peter Tchaikovsky). Article XX. While acknowledging the realities of political pressure, however, the oligarchy was determined to keep control. Article XXXIV. Sunset of the samurai. This arsenal was responsible for the development and manufacture of small arms and associated ammunition. , The elite class of the Meiji era adapted many aspects of Victorian taste, as seen in the construction of Western-style pavilions and reception rooms called yōkan or yōma in their homes.  Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. These images document efforts of modernization most evident in the military, civil government, education, and cultural institutions. Following World War I, a weakened Europe left a greater share in international markets to the United States and Japan, which emerged greatly strengthened. Japan’s efforts to build a modern nation considered both its history and adaptation of Western practices. In 1885, noted public intellectual Yukichi Fukuzawa wrote the influential essay "Leaving Asia", arguing that Japan should orient itself at the "civilized countries of the West", leaving behind the "hopelessly backward" Asian neighbors, namely Korea and China. The Meiji Era or Meiji Period was a time of incredible transformation in Japanese society. The Imperial Diet shall consist of two Houses, a House of Peers and a House of Representatives. The remaining five hundred samurai loyal to Saigō escaped, travelling south to Kagoshima. Article XII. Domestic commercial activities and limited foreign trade had met the demands for material culture until the Keiō era, but the modernized Meiji era had radically different requirements. Their teachers instructed them in their household duties and frequently taught them only the simpler written Japanese characters, allowing them to only learn basic literacy. The peasant class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki (blood tax) literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary. Five hundred people from the old court nobility, former daimyo, and samurai who had provided valuable service to the Emperor were organized into a new peerage, the Kazoku, consisting of five ranks: prince, marquis, count, viscount, and baron. The feudal system was decaying, and factions were growing. The Bank of Japan, founded in 1877, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. ), located in the middle of the megacity, Tokyo. The Supreme War Council developed a German-style general staff system with a chief of staff who had direct access to the Emperor and who could operate independently of the army minister and civilian officials. In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the US to learn western ways. Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule. Integrating Western cultural forms with an assumed, untouched native Japanese spirit was characteristic of Meiji society, especially at the top levels, and represented Japan's search for a place within a new world power system in which European colonial empires dominated. Japan's political elites realized that the U.S. and other countries were ahead in terms of military … In 1887, Music Research Institute was reformed into Tokyo Academy of Music, what gave the Institution a new status and contributed to its further development.  This brief document outlined the intentions and policies of the new government and laid the foundation for all the reforms that would follow in the coming decades. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.  For the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, the Japanese government created a Centennial Office and sent a special envoy to secure space for the 30,000 items that would be displayed. Discrimination against social classes ended, and the people had the freedom to practise any religion. The reforms of the Meiji period were not taken in isolation. (2005). Undeterred by opposition, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainland and construction of railroads, shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations. Government officials also consolidated power among an elite band of oligarchs. , The first railway was opened between Tokyo and Yokohama in 1872; and railway was rapidly developed throughout Japan well into the twentieth century. The course will combine daily lectures and discussions with hands-on sessions in which students will have the opportunity to examine outstanding examples of some of the most significant books produced in Edo and Meiji Japan. This essay briefly describes some key events in Japan's Meiji (1868-1912) and Taish (1912-1925) periods.  The career of porcelain artist Makuzu Kōzan is an archetype for the trajectory of Meiji art. The enacting of a constitution and formalization of a parliamentary system of government. In 1882, Ōkuma Shigenobu established the Rikken Kaishintō (Constitutional Progressive Party), which called for a British-style constitutional democracy. As Emperor Hirohito prepared for surrender in the summer of 1945, Japanese military leaders also saw that capitulation was imminent. The decades to come witnessed Japan grow at an unprecedented rate, with its economy reaching heights that were unseen in Asia. The year 2018 has seen many events in Japan marking 150 years since the Meiji Restoration. Now his first son, Yoshihito, ascended to the throne and took the name Taisho, ushering in the next era.  The appeal of his highly original style was in the choice of motifs and subject matter rather than embedded gold and silver.  From 1876 to 1913, Kōzan won prizes at 51 exhibitions, including the World's fair and the National Industrial Exhibition. Article XXXV. A little before the reopening Japan the first military academy based on Dutch model was founded in Nagasaki where, alongside with the military training, the military music was taught, since it was acknowledged to be an important component of the martial arts.  Cheap synthetic dyes meant that bold purples and reds, previously restricted to the wealthy elite, could be owned by anyone.  Namikawa Sōsuke promoted his work as technically innovative, and adopted a style resembling fine paintings. It provided for the Imperial Diet (Teikoku Gikai), composed of a popularly elected House of Representatives with a very limited franchise of male citizens who were over twenty-five years of age and paid fifteen yen in national taxes (approximately 1% of the population). Designs also increasingly used areas of blank space.  Suzuki Chokichi, a leading producer of cast bronze for international exhibition, became director of the Kiritsu Kosho Kaisha from 1874 to the company's dissolution in 1891. (Greenfield) In 1868, after the Meiji Restoration, the Meiji government introduced "the Great Japanese Imperial Constitution" and provided the emperor with the legal basis for an absolute power over the sovereignty of Japan. There were three main causes of the Meiji Restoration: First, internal problems in Japan made ruling the country too difficult. Instead, the power rested with the new government consisting of a small, close-knit cabinet of advisers. Thus, the Orthodox mission introduced the traditional choral music in Japan. Schools also continued to give moral instruction based on Confucian tradition, which encouraged patriotic loyalty and filial piety. The Diet could approve government legislation and initiate laws, make representations to the government, and submit petitions to the Emperor. Japan gradually took control of much of Asia's market for manufactured goods, beginning with textiles. The Charter Oath of the Meiji Restoration (1868). Meiji University is one of the best universities in Japan and has the history for 130 years. Chapter 2: Rights and duties of Subject In 1886, 62% of yarn in Japan was imported; by 1902, most yarn was produced locally. In reality, the Emperor was head of state but the Prime Minister was the actual head of government. Both sides suffered nearly four thousand casualties during this engagement. Another change in Meiji Japan … • More European nations wanted to trade with Japan, but the Dutch were the only nation allowed. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time, but was completed by the 1890s. After studying the Prussian and Austrian constitutions, Ito, Japanese leaders, and Western scholars began drafting the Meiji Constitution in 1881. Music panorama in Japan gradually became lively and prolific where the Western-inspired style music was flourishing.. Perhaps most dramatically, it abolished the old system of a social hierarchy based on inherited status. That all changed in 1877, when Saigō Takamori led the last rebellion of the samurai in Kyūshū. Japan’s efforts to build a modern nation considered both its history and adaptation of Western practices. How do they represent the identity and values the government hoped to project? Article IV. (2003). Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, and lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in kind as in pre-Meiji days and at slightly lower rates. Saigō's troops fled north and were pursued by the national army. , Japan's porcelain industry was well-established at the start of the Meiji era, but the mass-produced wares were not known for their elegance. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons. This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 21:15. So the term "Satsuma ware" came to be associated not with a place of origin but with lower-quality ware created purely for export. The Emperor declared that "constitutional government shall be established in gradual stages" as he ordered the Council of Elders to draft a constitution. The Imperial Throne shall be succeeded to by Imperial male descendants, according to the provisions of the Imperial House Law.  Some of these metalworkers were appointed Artists to the Imperial Household, including Kano Natsuo, Unno Shomin, Namekawa Sadakatsu, and Jomi Eisuke II. The Senmon Gakkō taught medicine, law, economics, commerce, agricultural science, engineering or business management. Among those were: The abolition of the feudal system and all feudal class privileges. In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration.The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, means to gain a voice in government. Between 1891 and 1895, Ito served as Prime Minister with a cabinet composed mostly of genro who wanted to establish a government party to control the House of Representatives. Explain the relationship between learning method and speed on the one hand and the absorptive capacity of Japanese engineers and workers on the other hand. The Emperor shared his authority and give rights and liberties to his subjects. When Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. steamed into Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay) in 1853 and demanded that Tokugawa Japan allow foreign powers access to trade, he unwittingly started a chain of events that led to Japan's rise as a modern imperial power. Two days later, Saigō's rebels, while attempting to block a mountain pass, encountered advanced elements of the national army en route to reinforce Kumamoto castle.  Workshops in many cities raced to produce this style to satisfy demand from Europe and America, often producing quickly and cheaply. . Two key documents of the Meiji era, The Charter Oath and the Meiji Constitution, were expressions of Japan’s new national identity. They formed a close circle around the emperor and advised him on everything. "[Review:] Japonisme and the Rise of the Modern Art Movement: The Arts of the Meiji Period", "[Review:] Japonisme and the Rise of the Modern Art Movement: The Arts of the Meiji Period, The Khalili Collection", "Women Music Educators in Japan during the Meiji Period", "Castles and the Militarisation of Urban Society in Imperial Japan", – historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection, “Tra realtà e finzione: la rivalutazione della narrativa premoderna nella critica letteraria Meiji, Università degli studi di Napoli "L'Orientale", Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, Kitahara, Michio. Article XVIII. This essay certainly encouraged the economic and technological rise of Japan in the Meiji era, but it also may have laid the intellectual foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region. The han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, and authority continued to flow to the national government. The newly educated music teachers organized lessons in singing, music theory, playing musical instruments (koto, kokyū, piano, organ and violin).  International exhibitions brought Japanese cast bronze to a new foreign audience, attracting strong praise. This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google, First Decades of the First Republic: 1911-1931. During the Tokugawa period most girls were not educated. The majority of these reforms were greatly influenced by the West, but they never deviated significantly from Japan’s cultural and historical roots. In order to maintain a link between past and present, essential to the preservation of order, the framers of the Meiji Constitution maintained the imperial system while becoming a modern nation-state. The Emperor is the head of the Empire. Some Japanese remained unaware of the changes taking place while others remained directly opposed to them.  Among these were the painter and lacquer artist Shibata Zeshin, ceramicist Makuzu Kōzan, painter Hashimoto Gahō, and cloisonné enamel artist Namikawa Yasuyuki. The Industrial Revolution in Japan occurred during the Meiji era.  Also, in the same year, the hyobusho (war office) was replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department. Yet, in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese missionaries introduced the first Western-style music to Japan: sacred choral music, music for organ, flute, harp, trumpet, violin, alto, double bass. Foremost among these was Shibata Zeshin, who has been called "Japan's greatest lacquerer". The mountainous character of the country has caused the population to concentrate within the limited plains and lowlands—notably along the Pacific littoral. , The interaction of Western and Japanese music in Meiji era is foremost linked to the military, religious and educational fields. The goals of the early leaders of the Meiji era were ambitious, as they established new economic, political, and social institutions that governed Japan through World War II.  Another trend in the Meiji era was for women's under-kimono made by combining pieces of different fabric, sometimes of radically different colours and designs. A cabinet was responsible to the Emperor and independent of the legislature. Christianity also was legalized, and Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. Chapter 1: Emperor (excerpted 7 out of 17 articles). The past 150 years of Japanese history can broadly be divided into three periods of success and failure. None of these far-reaching reforms were put into place overnight. The government initially was involved in economic modernization, providing a number of "model factories" to facilitate the transition to the modern era. The new motto was “Enrich the Country and Strengthen the Military.” What do you think might be the benefits of having a strong military at the center of efforts to reform the country? Together with Satsuma (now Kagoshima) and Tosa (now K… Schools furnished Western-style were built throughout Japan during the Meiji period. The final years of the Meiji era were also marked by the annexation of Korea in 1911; Japan's occupation of the peninsula nation would persist until Japan's loss in World War II in 1945, during the middle of the Shōwa period, and would have lasting negative repercussions on foreign relations between Japan and North and South Korea. A small clique of Satsuma and Chōshū elite continued to rule Japan, becoming institutionalized as an extra-constitutional body of genrō (elder statesmen). One member of the delegation was the statesman Ito Hirobumi. Deliberative assemblies shall be widely established and all mat- ters decided by public discussion.  He was an entrepreneur as well as an artist, organising a workshop with many artisans and actively promoting his work at international exhibitions, travelling extensively in Europe. The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan's modernization: the employment of more than 3,000 foreign experts (called o-yatoi gaikokujin or 'hired foreigners') in a variety of specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the army and navy, among others; and the dispatch of many Japanese students overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last article of the Charter Oath of 1868: 'Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial rule.'  In Europe and America, the new availability of Japanese art led to a fascination for Japanese culture; a craze known in Europe as Japonisme. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, and systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, and ordered new local administrative rules. As is the case with many important terms in Meiji Japan, terms such as "shis6" (thought, philosophy, ideology), "Shint6," and "religion" developed in part through the exercise of translation, in a context highly colored by the pressure to respond to the sudden onslaught of … Even the clothing of infants and young children used bold colours, intricate designs, and materials common to adult fashions. The Meiji and Taish periods were years of momentous change in Japan. With Emperor Meiji’s ascension to the throne in 1867, Japan theoretically restored power to the emperor, but because he was only 15 years old he had little governing power. Where do those roles intersect? Hane, M. Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in Prewar Japan. On the basis of its fundamental principle “Rights and Liberty” “Independence and Self-government”, we accept individuals from around the world to become a university open to the world. What are the skills of a great soldier? Greatly concerned about national security, the leaders made significant efforts at military modernization, which included establishing a small standing army, a large reserve system, and compulsory militia service for all men. Ōmura further proposed military billets be filled by all classes of people including farmers and merchants. In 1885, the Meiji government sponsored a telegraph system, throughout Japan, situating the telegraphs in all major Japanese cities at the time. The Emperor is sacred and inviolable. During the time of Imperialism, members of the Satsuma and Choshu, among the very powerful clans in Japan, were elements of their opposition to international imperialism. The Jiyūtō, which had opposed the Kaishinto, was disbanded in 1884 and Ōkuma resigned as Kaishintō president. Their first priorities included implementing land tax reforms and military conscription to strengthen the government. Article XXXIII. Class distinctions were mostly eliminated during modernization to create a representative democracy. Unlike other times in history when war was concluded, surrender to Allied forces this time included their arrest and prosecution for war crimes. Article II. Meiji (1868-1912), Taisho (1912-26) and Showa (1926-89) Periods.  The two most famous enamelers of this era were Namikawa Yasuyuki and Namikawa Sōsuke, whose family names sound the same but who were not related. 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